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英汉翻译中数的译法

英语可数名词的复数形式一般用来表示多数的意义,但我们译成汉语时,不能笼统地加上“们”或“些”,而是要根据句中不同的情况,将它们译成较明确的汉语。下面介绍四种常用的译法:
一、译成笼统的多数。如“数”,“几个”,“若干”,“一批”,“多少”,“群”等词。
1.If the reaction took hours and not seconds, the fuel costs would be prohibitive.
假如这一反应还需数小时而不是几秒钟,那么燃料成本就太高了。
2.The atom is made up of a nucleus with negative electrons revolving around it.
原子是由原子核和绕核旋转的若干负电子组成。
3. The first electronic computers used vacuum tubes and other components, and this made equipment very large and bulky.
第一批电子计算机使用真空管和其他元件,这是设备变得十分庞大。
4. There is enough coal to meet the word’s needs for centuries to come.
有足够的煤可以满足全世界几个世纪的需要。
5. the moon is moving west against the background of the stars.
月亮在群星的衬托下正西落。

二、译成具体的多数。如:“两个”,“一对”,“前后”,“内外”等词。

6. Each time the magnet is broken, new poles are formed, as indicated in Fig.5.

磁体每折断一次,就有两个新磁极形成,如图五所示。

7. To add rigidity, braces are sometimes fastened from the overarm to the knee.

为了增加刚性,有时从悬臂到升降台装上一对撑臂加以紧固。

8. The ends of the tubular furnace are closed to minimize convection currents inside the furnace.

把管式炉的前后端盖紧,是炉内的对流减少到最低限度。

9. the principal function that may be performed by vacuum tubes are rectification, amplification, oscillation, modulation, and detection.

真空管的五大功能是整流、放大、振荡、调制和检波。

10. To increase the contact area and permit larger loads to be carried, the balls run in curvilinear grooves in the rings.

为了增加接触面积并承受较大载荷,滚珠在内外环的曲线槽内滚动。

三、译成叠词形式。例如:

11. We saw bubbles rising from under the water.

我们看到一个个水泡从水下升起。

12. After dropping a small stone into still water, we saw ripples going out in all directions.

把一块小石头扔进平静的水中,我们看到一圈圈的涟漪向四面八方扩散。

13. When the plants died and decayed, they formed layers of organic materials.

当这些植物死亡腐烂时,它们就形成一层层有机物。

14.Noises may develop in a worm engine.

磨损了的发电机可能会产生种种噪音。

四、译成不同种类。如“多种”,“各种”等等。
16. A student of the motions of objects is necessary in order to understand their behavior.

为了了解物体的性能,有必要研究它们的各种运动。

17. The air is made up of a mixture of gases.

空气是由多种气体组合而成的。

18. Factories are power plants where various fuels are burned and where the heat energy produced is converted into mechanical energy.

各种工厂都是动力厂,都是燃烧不同燃料、将产生的热能变成机械能的场所。

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