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把观众引入正确的位置

Lead Your Audience to The Right Place

Signposting语言导航

When you drive on the roads, you know where you are on those roads. Each road has a name or number. Each town has a name. And each house has a number. If you are at house No.100, you can go back to No.50 or forward to No.150. You can look at the signposts for directions. And you can look at your atlas for the structure of the roads in detail. In other words, it is easy to navigate the roads. You cannot get lost. But when you give a speech, how can your audience know where they are? How can they know the structure of your speech? How can they know what is coming next? They know because you tell them. Because you put up signposts for them, at the beginning and all along the route. This technique is called "Signposting"  (or "Signalling").
当你驱车行驶在公路上,你知道你处在公路的哪一个位置。每一条路都有其名字和号码。每一个城镇都有名字。每一间房子也都有门牌。如果你在一百号房,你就可以找到五十和一百五十号房。你可以通过路标找到方向。你也可以通过地图详细地看到道路结构。也就是说,你可以轻易地确定道路方向,你就不会迷路。但是当你在做一个演讲的时候,你的听众怎样知道你说到哪里了呢?他们怎么知道你的演讲框架呢?他们怎么知道下一个又将是什么话题呢?只有你告诉他们,他们才知道,是因为你从始直终为他们设置了航标。这就叫“导航”。

During your introduction, you should tell your audience what the structure of your speech will be. You might say something like this:
在开始介绍的时候,你不妨告诉听众你所做演讲的框架结构。你可以这样对他们说:

"I'll start by describing the current position in Europe. Then I'll move on to some of the achievements we've made in Asia. After that I'll consider the opportunities we see for further expansion in Africa. Lastly, I'll quickly recap before concluding with some recommendations."
“我先描述一下当前欧洲的形势作为我演讲的开始。 然后,我将谈谈我们在亚洲取得的成绩。之后,我将评估一下在非洲进一步扩展的可能性。最后,我将做个总结,提出建议。”

A member of the audience can now visualize your speech like this:
这样听众就能够形象地描绘出你的演讲框架大概分为:
Introduction 介绍部分      
Welcome 欢迎词
Explanation of structure (now) 演讲框架
Body 正文部分
Europe欧洲小节
Asia  亚洲小节
Africa 非洲小节
Conclusion 总结部分
Summing up 概括
Recommendations 提议

He will keep this image in his head during the speech. He may even write it down. And throughout your speech, you will put up signposts telling him which point you have reached and where you are going now. When you finish Europe and want to start Asia, you might say:
听众就会在你整个演讲过程中脑海里形成一副清晰的框架。他们可以做下笔记。在你的整个演讲过程中,你可以设置航标,告诉听众你提到了哪些要点,要继续哪些要点。当你结束了欧洲要转到亚洲话题的时候,你可以说:

"What's all I have to say about Europe. Let's turn now to Asia.""
“这就是我对于欧洲阐述的问题。 现在,让我们再看看亚洲。”

When you have finished Africa and want to sum up, you might say:
当你结束了非洲话题后,不妨做个概括,你可以这样说:

"Well, we've looked at the three continents Europe, Asia and Africa. I'd like to sum up now.""
“好的,我们已经讨论了欧、亚、非三大洲的问题,现在我想做个总结论述。”

And when you finish summing up and want to give your recommendations, you might say:
当你结束概括后,如果你想提个建议,你可以这样说:

"What does all this mean for us? Well, firstly I recommend..."
“这些对我们将意味着什么?好了, 首先,我建议……”

Useful Signposting Sentences演讲实用导航套句
The table below lists useful expressions that you can use to signpost the various parts of your speech.
下面是你在演讲过程中,对你演讲各个部分向听众导航的实用套句表达。

Introducing the subject  介绍主题
I'd like to start by... 我想以……开始我的演讲
Let's begin by... 让我们从……开始
First of all, I'll... 首先,我将……
Starting with... 从……开始
I'll begin by... 我将从……入手
I am going to talk today about... 今天我想谈论一下…
The purpose of my speech is to introduce our new range of...
今天演讲的目的是介绍一下我们的新系列…
I think everybody in this room must have heard...
我想大家一定听说过…
Finishing one subject   结束一个主题
Well, I've told you about... 好的,我已经谈论了……
That's all I have to say about... 这就是我对……所说的一切
We've looked at... 我们已经看到……
So much for... 对……我已经谈了很多了
Starting another subject 开始另一个主题
Now we'll move on to... 现在,让我们将看看……
Let me turn now to... 现在,让我转到……
Next... 下面……
Turning to... 看看……
I'd like now to discuss... 我现在想谈论一下……
Let's look now at... 让我们看看……
I think I have gone so far with that proplem, let's turn over to
在那个问题上我已经谈了很多了,让我们转到…
Analyzing a point and giving recommendations 分析观点和提出建议
Where does that lead us? 这对我们将有什么启示?
Let's consider this in more detail... 让我们再详细地考虑一下
What does this mean for... ? 这对……将意味着什么?
Translated into real terms... 回到现实中来,我们……
In conclusion, my recommendations are...
总之,我的建议是……
I therefore suggest/propose/recommend the following strategy.
因此,我建议以下策略。
Giving an example 举例说明
For example,... 例如,……
A good example of this is... 一个对此很好的例子是……
As an illustration,... 如演示……
To give you an example,... 举个例子来说,……
To illustrate this point... 为了说明这一点,……
Dealing with questions 关于问题
We'll be examining this point in more detail later on...
我会以后更加详细地讨论关于……
I'd like to deal with this question later, if I may...
我想以后处理这个问题,如果我……
I'll come back to this question later in my talk...
我想在后面谈话中再进行论述这个问题,……
Perhaps you'm like to raise this point at the end...
也许,你应该在……结束时提出这个问题
I won't comment on this now...
我不想现在对此做出评论,……
Now I'll try to answer any questions you may have.
现在,我将回答你们的疑问。
Can I answer any questions?
你们有问题吗?
Are there any questions?
你们有疑问吗?
Do you have any questions?
你们要提什么问题吗?
Summarizing and concluding  概括和总结
In conclusion,... 总之,……
Right, let's sum up, shall we...?
好了,让我们总结一下,我们应该……?
I'd like now to recap... 我想现在概括一下……
Let's summarize briefly what we've looked at...
让我们简要概括一下我们所提到的……
Finally, let me remind you of some of the issues we've covered...     
最后,让我给大家再提一下我们所涉及的……问题
If I can just sum up the main points...
我想总结一下……要点

Ordering 顺序
Firstly...secondly...thirdly...lastly...
第一…、第二…、第三…、最后…
First of all...then...next...after that...finally...
首先…、然后…、接着…再后…、最后…
To start with...later...to finish up...
开始…、下面…、结束…

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