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演讲要点Elements of Speech-Making - 国际英语演讲高手

演讲要点Elements of Speech-Making
Common Structure of a Speech一般演讲框架

        A well-organized speech with a clear structure is easier for the audience to follow. It is therefore more effective. You should organize the points you wish to make in a logical order. Most speeches are organized in three parts, followed by questions:
       一个组织周全的演讲都有一个清晰的结构框架,听众比较容易跟随你的思路,因此,演讲也会更有成效。你必须有条理地把你的演讲要点组织在一起。多数演讲都遵循三个步骤,接着是问题回答部分。

开 始
中 间
结 束
简短介绍
演讲的正文
概括总结
Questions and Answers 问题回答
→ welcome your audience  欢迎听众
→ introduce your subject   介绍主题
→explain the structure of your      speech说明演讲框架 
→explain rules for questions
   说明提问规则
→ present the subject itself  陈述正文
→ summarize your speech 概括演讲
→thank your audience致谢听众
→invite questions征求提问

 

Get Your Speech well Prepared
给你的演讲做个准备
Editor's Note
          With good preparation and planning you will be totally confident and less nervous. And your audience will feel your confidence. Your audience, too, will be confident. They will be confident in you. And this will give you control. Control of your audience and of your speech. With control, you will be 'encharge' and your audience will listen positively to your message.

Can you name the three most important things when giving any speech?
你知道做任何演讲之前最重要的三样东西是什么吗?
第一:Preparation!
第二:Preparation!!
第三:Preparation!!!
 Preparation is everything!  准备就是一切!

Something Should be Taken into Account
你必须考虑的东西 
Objective 目 标
            Before you start to prepare a speech, you should ask yourself: "Why am I making this speech?" Do you need to inform, to persuade, to train or to sell? Your objective should be clear in your mind. If it is not clear in your mind, it cannot possibly be clear to your audience.
在你开始准备一个演讲之前,你应该试问一下自己: “我为什么要做这个演讲”? 你是想要转达或说服某种事情,还是想培训或推销某种产品?在你的心里你必须有一个明确的目标。如果你的目标不够明确,你的听众是不可能抓住你的要点的。

Audience 听众
            Who am I making this speech to? Sometimes this will be obvious, but not always. You should try to inform yourself. How many people? Who are they? Business people? Professional people? Political people? Experts or non-experts? Will it be a small, intimate group of 4 colleagues or a large gathering of 400 competitors? How much do they know already and what will they expect from you?
            我为谁做演讲? 答案多数时候是很清楚的,但事情并不总是这样。在这时候,你要尽量询问自己:有多少人? 他们是谁?商界人士还是专业人士?政界要人还是专家学者?他们是三四个亲密的同事?还是四五百个敌对竞争者?他们对你知道有多少?他们还希望从你身上获得什么?

Venue 地点
           Where am I making this speech?  In a small hotel meeting-room or a large conference hall? What facilities and equipment are available? What are the seating arrangements?
在哪里演讲? 在宾馆里的一个小型会议室里还是在一个大型会议厅里?里面有什么设施和设备?座位布置又是怎样?

Time and Length 时间和长度
           When am I making this speech and how long will it be? Will it be 5 minutes or 1 hour? Just before lunch, when your audience will be hungry, or just after lunch, when your audience will be sleepy?
什么时候开始演讲?演讲时间是多长? 是五分钟还是一个小时?在午饭前,听众都饿着肚子的时候? 还是在午饭后,听众比较疲倦的时候?

Method 演讲的方式
            How should I make this speech?What approach should you use? Formal or informal? Lots of visual aids or only a few? Will you include some anecdotes and humour for variety?
怎样演讲? 该采用怎样的方式?是正式还是非正式?有很多视觉辅具还是一点点?穿插一些趣文幽默?

Content 内容
           What should I say? Now you must decide exactly what you want to say. First, you should brainstorm your ideas. You will no doubt discover many ideas that you want to include in your speech. But you must be selective. You should include only information that is relevant to your audience and your objective. You should exclude all other ideas. You also need to create a title for your speech (if you have not already been given a title). The title will help you to focus on the subject. You can always give additional information during the questions after the speech.
  我该说些什么? 现在你必须决定你该说些什么。 首先,你得整体回顾一下你的想法。毫无疑问你会发现很多你想在演讲中提到的东西。但你必须要有选择性。你应该收集一些只与你的听众和主题相关联的信息。排除一切不相关的东西。(如果你还没有一个标题的话) 标题有助你的主题定位。在演讲后的问题回答过程中,你可提供一些附加的信息。

Notes 备忘稿
           When you give your speech, you should be - or appear to be - as spontaneous as possible. You should not read your speech! You should be so familiar with your subject and with the information that you want to deliver that you do not need to read a text. Reading a text is boring! Reading a text will make your audience go to sleep! So if you don't have a text to read, how can you remember to say everything you need to say? With notes. You can create your own system of notes. Some people make notes on small, A6 cards. Some people write down just the title of each section of their talk. Some people write down keywords to remind them. The notes will give you confidence, but because you will have prepared your speech fully, you may not even need them!
当你做演讲的时候,你应该是或者看起来是在做一个临场发挥的演讲。你不可能照本宣科,你应该对你演讲的主题和一切信息了如指掌。 读演讲稿是让人乏味的,这样会使你的观众昏昏欲睡。 然而没有演讲稿,你又怎样能够记住你要说的一切呢? 备忘稿,你可以创立自己的备忘稿。 有些人把它做成A6纸张大小。 有些人只写下每部分演讲的标题。 有些人则写下演讲的关键字来提醒自己。 这些备忘稿能够使你更加有信心,但是,如果你演讲准备充分的话,你根本就用不着它们。

Rehearsal 操练
Rehearsal will have the following benefits:  操练会使你受益非浅  :
you will become more familiar with what you want to say.
你会更加熟悉你想说的话。
you will identify weaknesses in your speech .
你能够发现演讲的弱点。
you will be able to practise difficult pronunciations.
你能够练习较难的发音。
you will be able to check the time that your speech takes and make any necessary modifications.
你能够算出演讲所需要的时间并做出必要的修动。

Editor's Note
Rehearsal is a vital part of preparation. You should leave time to practise your speech two or three times. Even the great speaker sometimes will be in panic and slip into a bathroom for practice before making a speech.
操练是准备过程中至关重要的一部分,你必须在演讲前抽出时间操练两三次。即使是出色的演讲者在演讲之前有时候也会惊恐不安,溜进洗手间猛操练一番。

Requirements of Language
演讲的语言要求
1. If you want your audience to understand your message, your language must  be simple and clear.
如果你想让你的听众理解你传递的信息,你的语言就应该简单、清晰。

2. Use short words and short sentences.
使用短字和短句。

3. Do not use jargon, unless you are certain that your audience understands it.
尽量不使用行话,除非你确信你的听众能够接受。

4. In general, talk about concrete facts rather than abstract ideas.
一般来说,尽量谈论实质的东西,少用抽象的概念。

5. Use active verbs instead of passive verbs. Active verbs are much easier to understand. They are much more powerful.
多用主动语态,少用被动语态。主动句更容易让人理解,它们更富有威力。

Tips for Dealing with Nervousness from a Famous Speaker
知名演讲家谈怎样应付公众演讲恐惧

Editor's Note
            The following speech was given by a famous American speaker. It is not only a good example of public speaking, it also shows us insight into nervousness reduction in public speaking.
下面这篇是美国一著名演说家的演讲。它不但是一篇演讲的典范,同时也是对削减公众演讲恐惧的精辟论述。

Ladies and gentlemen,
Today I want to talk about some tips to help deal with nervousness. Notice that I didn't say "overcome nervousness". That is because I believe that there is nothing that will make you instantly calm while speaking in public except of course, for horse tranquilizers『镇定剂』. The secret to achieving true calm, without drugs, is in practice. So I'd like to share some tips that will make you appear calm while you are working at expanding your comfort zone.
先生们,女士们,
今天我想想谈谈处理演讲紧张的几个技巧。不知道你有没有注意到我并没有说“消除恐惧”,那只是因为我认为在公众演讲中你不可能保持绝对的平静,当然,除非你服用精神镇定剂。真正要取得心理镇定的秘决是练习而不是通过镇定剂。如果你一直在努力使自己演讲更加轻松的话,我想同你分享一下能够让你保持平静的几个秘诀。

First of all, the very best way to deal with nervousness is too practice. Practice your speech so much that you can do it while on autopilot. That way, your lips and body will know what to do even if your mind has checked-out.
首先,充足的练习是应付紧张的最好方法。经常练习演讲能够让你熟能生巧,发挥自如。 这样,即使你的大脑一片空白,你的嘴唇和身体的动作也会不由自主地协调起来。

While speaking, concentrate on breathing slowly and deeply. Not only will you not hyperventilate『过度呼吸』 this way but you will also keep a nice steady supply of oxygen flowing through your blood stream. Nervous people have a tendency  to take short shallows breaths.
说话的时候,保持呼吸缓慢而深沉,这样你不但不会呼吸过度而变得闷抑,你还可以通过血液得到平稳的氧气供给。精神紧张的人往往趋向于呼吸急促且短浅。

Hum a key before you begin to speak and lower your voice just a tiny bit. The resultant『结果的』 noise will sound less like the pitch of a nervous mouse and more like a normal speaking voice. Avoid nervous hand gestures, too. Don't pretend that you are Adam and give yourself a fig leaf『仅可蔽体之衣服』. Don't wring your hands like a substitute teacher『代课老师』 in the wildest home room『年级教室』. If you haven't got a good use for them at the time, keep those hands hanging freely at your side.
说话前为自己定一个调,声音放低一点。这样你的声音就不会听起来过于紧张而更像一种自然说话声音。还要避免紧张的手势动作,不要装腔作势,犹如穿着新装的皇帝。不要像在年级教室里的代课老师一样使劲挥动双手。如果你不是很擅长使用手势的话,就让你的手在一旁自然地放着。

And try to put the whole thing into perspective. What's there to be afraid of anyway? Does the state of world peace hang on the result of this one presentation? Are small children going to die as a result? Will it even be something that you remember in five years time? Why are we afraid of public speaking anyway? There is no good reason. We got something to say, why can't we say it? Some fears we have for a good reason. For instance, I'm not planning to take up sky diving any time soon. I'm not quite ready to die yet. But fear of public speaking? It is completely irrational. Think of the fear in that way and try to see it for what it really is. Stupid.
正确衡量整体事物。究竟还有什么东西值得害怕呢?你的演讲影响着世界的和平?关系着儿童的生死?五年后它还会成为你难以忘记的事情?公众演讲到底有什么恐惧的呢?我们很难为恐惧找到其合理的理由。 我们有话要说,为什么不能说呢?但是有些恐惧确实有其存在的原因,例如,我们没有乘过飞机。我们没有为死亡做好准备。但却为什么偏要害怕公众演讲呢?这完全是荒谬无理的。如果我们这样去想想,究竟为什么而害怕,就会发现这真是个太愚蠢的行为。

And if all else fails, quote a little Shakespeare. I have a favorite line that gave me strength and I used to repeat it like a mantra. Unfortunately the context from which it comes is a teensy bit grim. It happens to be the tool that Lady MacBeth used to talk the hubby『丈夫』 into rubbing out『铲除』 the king. But it is a great line, none the less. And it is the line that I'd like to end this educational minute with. It goes like this: Screw your courage to the sticking place and we shall not fail.
如果一切都不能奏效的话,那就引用一些莎士比亚的名言。我有一条非常喜爱的名言,曾经给我力量,我过去把它当作一条真理一样引用。不幸的是,这句话的所出背景却有点残酷。它却是麦克白夫人用来要求丈夫除掉国王的工具。但它确实很伟大。在这里我想用此句来结束最后启发性的一刻。它是这样的:挤出你最大的勇气我们就不会失败。
 演讲导航用句
Today I want to talk about...
今天我想谈谈……

First of all, ...
首先,……

And it is the line that I'd like to end this educational minute with.
在这里我想用此句来结束最后启发性的一刻。

 启发性经典句

What's there to be afraid of anyway? Does the state of world peace hang on the result of this one presentation?
究竟还有什么东西值得害怕呢?你的演讲影响着世界的和平?

Will it even be something that you remember in five years time? Why are we afraid of public speaking anyway?
五年后它还会成为你难以忘记的事情?公众演讲到底有什么恐惧的呢?

Screw your courage to the sticking place and we shall not fail.
Editor's Notes
The truth about public speaking, however, is IT DOES NOT HAVE TO BE STRESSFUL! If you correctly understand the hidden causes of public speaking stress, and if you keep just a few key principles in mind, speaking in public will soon become an invigorating and satisfying experience for you.

人们对公众演讲都有很大的压力,其实不然。只要你真正理解公众演讲恐惧的潜在原因,只要你记住一些主要的方法,公众演讲一定会变成一次自信与满足的经历。

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