演讲要点Elements of Speech-Making - 国际英语演讲高手
演讲要点Elements of Speech-Making
Common Structure of a Speech一般演讲框架
A well-organized speech with a clear structure is easier for the audience to follow. It is therefore more effective. You should organize the points you wish to make in a logical order. Most speeches are organized in three parts, followed by questions:
Questions and Answers 问题回答
→ welcome your audience 欢迎听众
→ introduce your subject 介绍主题
→explain the structure of your speech说明演讲框架
→explain rules for questions
→ present the subject itself 陈述正文
→ summarize your speech 概括演讲
→thank your audience致谢听众
Get Your Speech well Prepared
With good preparation and planning you will be totally confident and less nervous. And your audience will feel your confidence. Your audience, too, will be confident. They will be confident in you. And this will give you control. Control of your audience and of your speech. With control, you will be 'encharge' and your audience will listen positively to your message.
Can you name the three most important things when giving any speech?
Preparation is everything! 准备就是一切！
Something Should be Taken into Account
Objective 目 标
Before you start to prepare a speech, you should ask yourself: "Why am I making this speech?" Do you need to inform, to persuade, to train or to sell? Your objective should be clear in your mind. If it is not clear in your mind, it cannot possibly be clear to your audience.
在你开始准备一个演讲之前，你应该试问一下自己: “我为什么要做这个演讲”？ 你是想要转达或说服某种事情，还是想培训或推销某种产品？在你的心里你必须有一个明确的目标。如果你的目标不够明确，你的听众是不可能抓住你的要点的。
Who am I making this speech to? Sometimes this will be obvious, but not always. You should try to inform yourself. How many people? Who are they? Business people? Professional people? Political people? Experts or non-experts? Will it be a small, intimate group of 4 colleagues or a large gathering of 400 competitors? How much do they know already and what will they expect from you?
我为谁做演讲？ 答案多数时候是很清楚的，但事情并不总是这样。在这时候，你要尽量询问自己：有多少人？ 他们是谁？商界人士还是专业人士？政界要人还是专家学者？他们是三四个亲密的同事？还是四五百个敌对竞争者？他们对你知道有多少？他们还希望从你身上获得什么？
Where am I making this speech? In a small hotel meeting-room or a large conference hall? What facilities and equipment are available? What are the seating arrangements?
Time and Length 时间和长度
When am I making this speech and how long will it be? Will it be 5 minutes or 1 hour? Just before lunch, when your audience will be hungry, or just after lunch, when your audience will be sleepy?
什么时候开始演讲？演讲时间是多长？ 是五分钟还是一个小时？在午饭前，听众都饿着肚子的时候？ 还是在午饭后，听众比较疲倦的时候？
How should I make this speech?What approach should you use? Formal or informal? Lots of visual aids or only a few? Will you include some anecdotes and humour for variety?
What should I say? Now you must decide exactly what you want to say. First, you should brainstorm your ideas. You will no doubt discover many ideas that you want to include in your speech. But you must be selective. You should include only information that is relevant to your audience and your objective. You should exclude all other ideas. You also need to create a title for your speech (if you have not already been given a title). The title will help you to focus on the subject. You can always give additional information during the questions after the speech.
我该说些什么？ 现在你必须决定你该说些什么。 首先，你得整体回顾一下你的想法。毫无疑问你会发现很多你想在演讲中提到的东西。但你必须要有选择性。你应该收集一些只与你的听众和主题相关联的信息。排除一切不相关的东西。（如果你还没有一个标题的话） 标题有助你的主题定位。在演讲后的问题回答过程中，你可提供一些附加的信息。
When you give your speech, you should be - or appear to be - as spontaneous as possible. You should not read your speech! You should be so familiar with your subject and with the information that you want to deliver that you do not need to read a text. Reading a text is boring! Reading a text will make your audience go to sleep! So if you don't have a text to read, how can you remember to say everything you need to say? With notes. You can create your own system of notes. Some people make notes on small, A6 cards. Some people write down just the title of each section of their talk. Some people write down keywords to remind them. The notes will give you confidence, but because you will have prepared your speech fully, you may not even need them!
当你做演讲的时候，你应该是或者看起来是在做一个临场发挥的演讲。你不可能照本宣科，你应该对你演讲的主题和一切信息了如指掌。 读演讲稿是让人乏味的，这样会使你的观众昏昏欲睡。 然而没有演讲稿，你又怎样能够记住你要说的一切呢？ 备忘稿，你可以创立自己的备忘稿。 有些人把它做成A6纸张大小。 有些人只写下每部分演讲的标题。 有些人则写下演讲的关键字来提醒自己。 这些备忘稿能够使你更加有信心，但是，如果你演讲准备充分的话，你根本就用不着它们。
Rehearsal will have the following benefits: 操练会使你受益非浅 ：
you will become more familiar with what you want to say.
you will identify weaknesses in your speech .
you will be able to practise difficult pronunciations.
you will be able to check the time that your speech takes and make any necessary modifications.
Rehearsal is a vital part of preparation. You should leave time to practise your speech two or three times. Even the great speaker sometimes will be in panic and slip into a bathroom for practice before making a speech.
Requirements of Language
1. If you want your audience to understand your message, your language must be simple and clear.
2. Use short words and short sentences.
3. Do not use jargon, unless you are certain that your audience understands it.
4. In general, talk about concrete facts rather than abstract ideas.
5. Use active verbs instead of passive verbs. Active verbs are much easier to understand. They are much more powerful.
Tips for Dealing with Nervousness from a Famous Speaker
The following speech was given by a famous American speaker. It is not only a good example of public speaking, it also shows us insight into nervousness reduction in public speaking.
Ladies and gentlemen,
Today I want to talk about some tips to help deal with nervousness. Notice that I didn't say "overcome nervousness". That is because I believe that there is nothing that will make you instantly calm while speaking in public except of course, for horse tranquilizers『镇定剂』. The secret to achieving true calm, without drugs, is in practice. So I'd like to share some tips that will make you appear calm while you are working at expanding your comfort zone.
First of all, the very best way to deal with nervousness is too practice. Practice your speech so much that you can do it while on autopilot. That way, your lips and body will know what to do even if your mind has checked-out.
While speaking, concentrate on breathing slowly and deeply. Not only will you not hyperventilate『过度呼吸』 this way but you will also keep a nice steady supply of oxygen flowing through your blood stream. Nervous people have a tendency to take short shallows breaths.
Hum a key before you begin to speak and lower your voice just a tiny bit. The resultant『结果的』 noise will sound less like the pitch of a nervous mouse and more like a normal speaking voice. Avoid nervous hand gestures, too. Don't pretend that you are Adam and give yourself a fig leaf『仅可蔽体之衣服』. Don't wring your hands like a substitute teacher『代课老师』 in the wildest home room『年级教室』. If you haven't got a good use for them at the time, keep those hands hanging freely at your side.
And try to put the whole thing into perspective. What's there to be afraid of anyway? Does the state of world peace hang on the result of this one presentation? Are small children going to die as a result? Will it even be something that you remember in five years time? Why are we afraid of public speaking anyway? There is no good reason. We got something to say, why can't we say it? Some fears we have for a good reason. For instance, I'm not planning to take up sky diving any time soon. I'm not quite ready to die yet. But fear of public speaking? It is completely irrational. Think of the fear in that way and try to see it for what it really is. Stupid.
And if all else fails, quote a little Shakespeare. I have a favorite line that gave me strength and I used to repeat it like a mantra. Unfortunately the context from which it comes is a teensy bit grim. It happens to be the tool that Lady MacBeth used to talk the hubby『丈夫』 into rubbing out『铲除』 the king. But it is a great line, none the less. And it is the line that I'd like to end this educational minute with. It goes like this: Screw your courage to the sticking place and we shall not fail.
Today I want to talk about...
First of all, ...
And it is the line that I'd like to end this educational minute with.
What's there to be afraid of anyway? Does the state of world peace hang on the result of this one presentation?
Will it even be something that you remember in five years time? Why are we afraid of public speaking anyway?
Screw your courage to the sticking place and we shall not fail.
The truth about public speaking, however, is IT DOES NOT HAVE TO BE STRESSFUL! If you correctly understand the hidden causes of public speaking stress, and if you keep just a few key principles in mind, speaking in public will soon become an invigorating and satisfying experience for you.
文章来源:网络 作者:未知 浏览次数:3941